Vacuum Infusion High Strength Thin Clear Epoxy Resin 4 Carbon Fiber Fiberglass!

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Verkäufer: polymerproducts (16.423) 99.8%, Artikelstandort: Ontario, California, Versand nach: Worldwide, Artikelnummer: 311946441558 THIS PAGE IS BEST VIEWED USING GOOGLE CHROME BROWSERMAX 1618 A/BHigh-Performance Crystal Clear Casting Resin (192.0 FLUID OUNCE COMBINED VOLUME)1 Gallon MAX 1618 PART A (US GALLON 128 FL.OZ)AND1/2 Gallon MAX 1618 PART B (½ US GALLON 64 FL.OZ)PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONMAX 1618 A/B is our newest engineered resin system mixed at a 2:1 mix ratio that exhibits a very low initial viscosity, excellent reactivity, and high mechanical performance. MAX 1618 A/B works well with all types of composite fabrics but yields outstanding performance when used with carbon fiber fabrics.It is a very color stable resin system, resistant to yellowing and 'blushing’, excellent resistance to air bubble entrapment and fabric-wetting properties.MAX 1618 A/B is room temperature cured and has a moderate working time or reactivity. It cures to a very transparent clear resin system with a low refractive index. MAX 1618 A/B exhibits low dimensional shrinkage during cure, heat performance of up to 220°F, adhesion to 'hard to bond to' plastics and low surface energy (LSE) substrates with exceptional impact and chemical resistance. Its cured mechanical properties also demonstrate high compressive strength, toughness, tensile strength and other mechanical performance crucial in structural composite fabrication. 100% Carbon Fiber Hood With MAX 1618 A/BGeneral Principle of vacuum bagging General Principles of Vacuum Bagging With MAX EPOXY RESINS - YouTubeVideo will open in a new window MAX 1618 A/B VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING PROCESSCARBON FIBER VACUUM INFUSION WITH EPOXY RESIN - VACUUM BAGGING WITH MAX 1618 EPOXY RESIN - YouTubeVideo will open in a new windowNote the absolute clarity of the MAX 1618 A/B specimen exhibiting excellent transparency and low refractive index (1.46).Common epoxy-based formulations engineered for high-strength structural applications typically exhibit very poor color stability due to the use curing agents that are inherently yellow or amber in color. In contrast, resin formulations engineered for transparent clear and other aesthetic applications yield lower mechanical strength caused by the use of lower functionality amine curing agents.MAX 1618 A/B does not utilize any liquid plasticizers and accelerators such as nonylphenol or benzyl alcohol, which causes extreme yellowing even if the cured polymer is protected or unexposed to Ultraviolet or ambient heat.THIS KIT INCLUDES A SET OF YORKER CAPS FOR CONTROLLED DISPENSING. Use these Yorker caps to dispense the material with ease and minimize over pouring and reduce spills. We do not recommend usingdispensing pumps. The curing agent or part B of any epoxy resin system is sensitive to moisture and carbon dioxide, which will react with the curing agent and form carbamate crystals (salt-like crystals that form on the tip of the pump) and reduce reactivity. CARBAMATE CRYSTALS THAT FORM ON THE PUMP WHEN THE CURING AGENT IS EXPOSED AMBIENT MOISTURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE. THESE CRYSTALS ARE INSOLUBLE IN EPOXY RESIN RESULTING IN CONTAMINATION AND CAUSES POOR CURE AND AMINE-BLUSHING. Use these Yorker caps and cut the tip to meter the orifice of the of the tip for accurate dispensing. When done, just replace the tip cap and it will exclude ambient moisture and air and keep the resin system viable for years. Unless the kit is used continuously and within a short period of time, using dispensing pumps will cause more problems than ease-of-use. The pump leaves the bottle open to moisture (from the pressure-relief hole) and unless you plan on using the whole 2-gallon kit in less than a month, the curing agent will degrade and cause other curing problems. To use the caps, cut off the tip to the desired hole size, and attach, do not cus pass the ridgeline that keeps the tip cap in place. To dispense, lay the plastic jug unto its side and apply pressure on the bottle to dispense the contents.When done replace the tip cap and the container is sealed and it will be usable for years.We highly recommend using a scale to measure each component accurately. RESIN CRYSTALLIZATION FROM PROLONGED STORAGE OR COLD WEATHER EXPOSUREThe resin component or the PART A may crystallize due to cold temperature exposure. Please inspect the resin component for any solidified crystals which will appear as waxy solid or cloudiness on the bottom of the PART A bottle. An information postcard is included with each package. Please cut and paste this link for more processing instructions the following video for identification and processing. DO NOT USE UNLESS PROCESSED TO REVERT ANY CRYSTALIZED RESIN BACK TO A LIQUID STATE AND AVOID POOR CURED RESULTS.Physical and Mechanical PropertiesDensity1.10 g/cc +/- .02 grams per cubic centimeter0.98 +/- .05 grams per cubic centimeter 1.09.+/-.03 grams per cubic centimeterPart A Part B MixedPounds per Gallon Mixed9.07 Pounds Per GallonForm and ColorPART APART BMIXEDCured specimen 50 grams MassClear LiquidClear LiquidClear Liquid Clear TransparentViscosityPART A =PART B =MIXED =980 to 1040 cPs @ 25ºC300 to 310 cPs @ 25ºC 377 cPs @ 25ºCMix Ratio100 Parts “B” to 50 Parts “A” By Weight Or 2:1 By VolumeUse a digital scale and proportion by weight instead of volumetric measurement especially when mixing less than 100 gramsWorking Time30 Minutes @ 25ºC (300 gram mass)Peak Exotherm Temperature174ºC (300 gram concentrated mass) after 50 minutesHandle Time6 – 8 Hours Set to Touch, 10 Hours Green StrengthMaximum Operating Temperature95ºCFull Cure Time36 Hrs. Minimum @ 25ºCAccelerated Cure Schedule4 hours at 25ºC or until dry to the touch plus 30 Minutes @ 150ºF Heat Resistance Study By Shore Durometer Hardness TestThe heat resistance of MAX 1618 A/B was tested by heating a 2-inch cube in 5-degree increments and the Shore hardness was determined using both the Shore A and D scale. This test demonstrates the heat resistance of the MAX 1618 A/B by determining at what temperature the Shore Hardness reading dramatically change. At 140 °F, a considerable change in Shore D Hardness Scale occurred due to the sharp needle-like indenter of the equipment began puncturing the surface of the specimen which may make the Scale D Hardness an unreliable test data.The Shore A scale demonstrated a dramatic change in hardness at 240°F which demonstrates it maximum heat tolerance more accurately than the Shore D scale. HardnessApplication30 Shore AArt gum erasers35 Shore ARubber bands40 Shore ACan tester pads50 Shore ARubber stamps55 Shore APencil erasers60 Shore AScreen wiper blades65 Shore AAutomotive tires70 Shore AShoe heels75 Shore AAbrasive handling pads80 Shore AShoe soles85 Shore ATap washers90 Shore ATypewriter rollers95 Shore AFork lift solid tires60 Shore DGolf ball70 Shore DMetal forming wiper dies80 Shore DPaper-making rolls Shore hardness is a measure of the resistance of a material to penetration of a spring-loaded needle-like indenter. Shore A scale is used for testing soft elastomers (rubbers) and other soft polymers.The hardness of hard elastomers and most other polymer materials is measured by Shore D scale. Shore hardness is tested with an instrument called Durometer. Durometer utilizes an indenter loaded by a calibrated spring.The measured hardness is determined by the penetration depth of the indenter under the load. Two different indenter shapes and two different spring loads are used for two Shore scales (A and D).The loading forces of Shore A: 1.812 lb (822 g), Shore D: 10 lb (4536 g). Shore hardness value may vary in the range from 0 to 100. Maximum penetration for each scale is 0.097-0.1 inch. This value corresponds to minimum Shore hardness: 0. Maximum hardness value 100 corresponds to zero penetration. MAX 1618 A/B COLOR STABILITY COMPARISONClear epoxy systems formulated using plasticizers and accelerators such as the specimen.The left specimen demonstrates poor color stability even if it is unexposed to direct sunlight or elevated temperature. Note the MAX 1618 A/B specimen that was formed at the same time and kept in a temperature controlled (25.0°C +/- 0.5 °C) chamber that filters out any UV radiation from an ambient light source.MAX 1618 A/B DIRECT SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE STUDYNote the low yellowing performance of MAX 1618 A/B compared to a common brand epoxy resin after equal direct sunlight exposure of 2 months.Competitive brand clear resin system formulated with nonyl phenol plasticizers after sunlight exposureNote the absolute clarity of the MAX 1618 A/B specimen exhibiting excellent transparency and low refractive index.COATING AND CASTING MEASUREMENTS AND STANDARDSFLUID GALLON VOLUME CONVERSION1 US GALLON231 CUBIC INCHES1 US GALLON128 FLUID OUNCES1 US GALLON3.7854 LITERS1 US GALLON4 US QUARTS1 US GALLON16 CUPS1 US GALLON OF UNFILLED PURE EPOXY RESIN 9.23 POUNDS1 US GALLON OF UNFILLED PURE EPOXY RESIN4195 GRAMS REVIEW THE FOLLOWING USAGE INFORMATION BEFORE USING THIS PRODUCT. DUE TO ITS HIGH PURITY GRADE RESIN FORMULATION, MAX 1618 A/B IS PRONE TO CRYSTALLIZATION DUE TO COLD TEMPERATURE AND SUDDEN MECHANICAL SHOCK. DO NOT USE THE RESIN SYSTEM UNLESS IT HAS BEEN PROPERLY PROCESSED TO INSURE ITS PROPER CURE AND HIGH MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE.USE AN INFRARED HEAT LAMP FOR LARGER PARTS. EPOXY RESIN MIXING TECHNIQUEThe use of a weighing scale to measure out the resin and curing agent is highly recommended to ensure proper cured performance. This digital scale is available for purchase by clicking the link below. Purchase this scale with any of our product offering and the shipping cost of the scale is free. VIEW THE FOLLOWING VIDEO FOR THE PROPER MIXING OF EPOXY RESINS. ALTHOUGH THE RESIN SYSTEM DEMONSTRATED IS MAX CLR A/B, IT DEMONSTRATES THE PROPER TECHNIQUE OF MIXING ANY TYPE OF EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM. THE PROPER CURE AND FINAL PERFORMANCE OF ANY EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM IS HIGHLY DEPENDENT ON THE QUALITY AND THOROUGHNESS OF THE MIX. THE RESIN AND CURING AGENT MUST BE MIXED TO HOMOGENEOUS CONSISTENCY.PROPER EPOXY MIXING TECHNIQUE - Avoid tacky or uncured spots and low air bubble mixing - YouTubeVideo will open in a new window AIR BUBBLE REMOVAL TECHNIQUEHOW TO REMOVE AIR BUBBLES FROM AN APPLIED EPOXY COATING, ALSO HELPS WITH LEVELING AND FLOW - YouTubeVideo will open in a new window CUTTING AND POLISHING Video will open in a new windowPOLISHING COMPOSITE FABRICATING BASIC GUIDELINESBy resolute definition, a fabricated COMPOSITE material is a manufactured collection of two or more ingredients or products intentionally combined to form a new homogeneous material that is defined by its performance that should uniquely greater than the sum of its individual parts. This method is also defined as a SYNERGISTIC COMPOSITION. COMPOSITE MATERIAL COMPOSITIONREINFORCING FABRIC & IMPREGNATING RESIN PLUS 'ENGINEERED PROCESS' EQUALS COMPOSITE LAMINATE WITH THE BEST WEIGHT TO STRENGTH PERFORMANCE With respect to the raw materials selection -fabric and resin, the fabricating process and the and curing and test validation of composite part, these aspects must be carefully considered and in the engineering phase of the composite. Step One: Fabric SelectionTYPES OF FABRIC WEAVE STYLE AND SURFACE FINISHINGFOR RESIN TYPE COMPATIBILITY Fabrics are generally considered ”balanced” if the breaking strength is within 15% warp to fill and are best in bias applications on lightweight structures. “Unbalanced” fabrics are excellent when a greater load is required one direction and a lesser load in the perpendicular direction. Tow: The bundle of individual carbon filaments used to weave carbon fabric. 50k tow means there are 48-50,000 carbon filaments in the tow. Smaller tow i.e. 12k, 6k, 3k and 1k are obtained by dividing the 50k tow into smaller bundles.Thread Count: The number of threads (tow in carbon and yarn in Aramid) per inch. The first number will be the warp count and the second will be the fill count. Fill: The threads that run the width of the roll or bolt and perpendicular to the warp threads. Warp: The threads that run the length of the roll or bolt and perpendicular to the fill threads. Finish: The chemical treatment to fiberglass making it compatible with resin systems, therefore improving the bond between the fiber and the resin. Finishing fiberglass typically decreases the fiber strength by as much as 50%. Both Silane and Volan finishes are epoxy compatible. Historically, Volan has been considered a softer finish for a more pliable fabric, but recent advances have yielded some excellent soft Silane finishes.Thickness: Measured in fractions of an inch. The thicker the fabric the more resin required to fill the weave to obtain a surface-smooth finished part.Weaves:Plain weave means the warp and fill threads cross alternately. This is the most common weave.4 Harness (4 HS Satin or crowfoot) weave means the fill thread floats over three warp threads, then under one warp thread. This weave is more pliable than the plain weave, therefore conforms to complex curves more easily.8 Harness (8 HS Satin) weave means the fill thread floats over seven warp threads, then under one warp thread. This weave is the most pliable of the standard fiberglass weaves.2 x 2 Twill weave means the fill thread floats over two warp threads, then fewer than two warp threads. This weave is found most commonly in carbon fabrics and is more pliable than plain weave.Most fabrics are stronger in the warp than the fill because higher tension is placed on the warp fiber keeping it straighter during the weaving process. Rare exceptions occur when a larger, therefore stronger thread is used in the fill direction than the warp direction. PLAIN WEAVEIs a very simple weave pattern and the most common style. The warp and fill yarns are interlaced over and under each other in alternating fashion. Plain weave provides good stability, porosity and the least yarn slippage for a given yarn count. 8 HARNESS SATIN WEAVEThe eight-harness satin is similar to the four-harness satin except that one filling yarn floats over seven warp yarns and under one.This is a very pliable weave and is used for forming over curved surfaces. 4 HARNESS SATIN WEAVEThe four-harness satin weave is more pliable than the plain weave and is easier to conform to curved surfaces typical in reinforced plastics. In this weave pattern, there is a three by one interfacing where a filling yarn floats over three warp yarns and under one. 2x2 TWILL WEAVETwill weave is more pliable than the plain weave and has better drivability while maintaining more fabric stability than a four or eight harness satin weave. The weave pattern is characterized by a diagonal rib created by one warp yarn floating over at least two filling yarns. SATIN WEAVE TYPE CONFORMITY UNTO CURVED SHAPES Plain Weaves, Bi-axial, Unidirectional Styles For Directional High Strength Parts Use this weave style cloth when high strength parts are desired.It is ideal for reinforcement, mold making, aircraft and auto parts tooling, marine, and other composite lightweight applications.7544 Fiberglass - YouTube FIBERGLASS FINISHING FOR RESIN COMPATIBILITYAll of the fiberglass fabrics is woven By HEXCEL COMPOSITES, a leading manufacturer of composite materials engineered for high-performance applications in marine, aerospace for commercial and military, automotive, sporting goods and other application-critical performance. These fabrics are 100% epoxy-compatible and will yield the best mechanical properties when properly fabricated. Finishing Cross Reference And Resin Type Compatibility RESIN COMPATIBILITYBurlingtonIndustriesClark SchwebelJ.P StevensUniglass IndustriesEpoxy, PolyesterVOLAN AVOLAN AVOLAN AVOLAN AEpoxy, PolyesterI-550CS-550S-550UM-550Phenolic, MelamineI-588A1100A1100A1100Epoxy, PolyimideI-589Z6040S-920UM-675EpoxyI-399CS-272AS-935UM-702Epoxy CS-307 UM-718Epoxy CS-344 UM-724Silicone112112 n-pH (neutral pH) AVAILABLE FIBERGLASS, CARBON FIBER, AND KEVLAR FABRICSHEXCEL 120 1.5-OUNCE FIBERGLASS PLAIN WEAVE 5 YARDS 120 1.5-OUNCE FIBERGLASS PLAIN WEAVE 10 YARDS 7532 7-OUNCE FIBERGLASS PLAIN WEAVE 5 YARDS 7500 10 OUNCE FIBERGLASS PLAIN WEAVE 3 YARDS 7500 10 OUNCE FIBERGLASS PLAIN WEAVE 5 YARDS 3582 14 OUNCE FIBERGLASS SATIN WEAVE 5 YARDS 3582 14 OUNCE FIBERGLASS SATIN WEAVE 10 YARDS 1584 26 OUNCE FIBERGLASS SATIN WEAVE 3 YARDS 1584 26 OUNCE FIBERGLASS SATIN WEAVE 5 YARDS 45+/45- DOUBLE BIAS 3 YARDS CARBON FIBER FABRIC 3K 2x2 TWILL WEAVE 6 OZ. 3 YARDS FIBER FABRIC 3K PLAIN WEAVE 6 OZ 3 YARDS /311947292012 KEVLAR 49 HEXCEL 351 PLAIN WEAVE FABRIC 2.2 OZ Step Two: Choose The Best Epoxy Resin System For The ApplicationThe epoxy resin used in fabricating a laminate will dictate how the FRP will perform when load or pressure is implied on the part.To choose the proper resin system, consider the following factors that is crucial to a laminate's performance.SIZE AND CONFIGURATION OF THE PART(NUMBER OF PLIES AND CONTOURED, FLAT OR PROFILED)CONSOLIDATING FORCE(FREE STANDING DRY OR HAND LAY-UP, VACUUM BAG OR PLATEN PRESS CURING)CURING CAPABILITIES(HEAT CURED OR ROOM TEMPERATURE CURED)LOAD PARAMETERS(SHEARING FORCE, TORSIONAL AND DIRECTIONAL LOAD, BEAM STRENGTH)ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSUREThe principal role of the resin is to bind the fabric into a homogeneous rigid substrate(OPERATING TEMPERATURE, AMBIENT CONDITIONS, CHEMICAL EXPOSURE, CYCLIC FORCE LOADING)MATERIAL AND PRODUCTION COST(BUYING IN BULK WILL ALWAYS PROVIDE THE BEST OVERALL COSTS) These factors will dictate the design and the composition of the part and must be carefully considered during the design and engineering phase of the fabrication. TOP SELLING IMPREGNATING RESIN SYSTEM MAX BOND LOW VISCOSITY A/BMarine Grade Boat Building Resin System, Fiberglassing/Impregnating, Water Resistance, Cured Structural StrengthMAX BOND LOW VISCOSITY 32-Ounce kit BOND LOW VISCOSITY 64-Ounce Kit BOND LOW VISCOSITY 1-Gallon Kit BOND LOW VISCOSITY 2-Gallon kit BOND LOW VISCOSITY 10-Gallon Kit MAX 1618 A/BCrystal Clear, High Strength, Lowest Viscosity (Thin), Durability & Toughness, Excellent Wood Working ResinMAX 1618 A/B 48-Ounce Kit 1618 A/B 3/4-Gallon Kit 1618 A/B 3/4-Gallon Kit 1618 A/B 1.5-Gallon Kit MAX CLR A/BWater Clear Transparency, Chemical Resistance, FDA Compliant For Food Contact, High Impact, Low ViscosityMAX CLR A/B 24-Ounce Kit CLR A/B 48-Ounce Kit CLR A/B 96-Ounce Kit CLR A/B 96-Ounce Kit CLR A/B 1.5-Gallon Kit GRE A/BGASOLINE RESISTANT EPOXY RESIN Resistant To Gasoline/E85 Blend, Acids & Bases, Sealing, Coating, Impregnating ResinMAX GRE A/B 48-Ounce Kit GRE A/B 96-Ounce Kit MAX HTE A/BHIGH-TEMPERATURE EPOXYHeat Cured Resin System For Temperature Resistant Bonding, Electronic Potting, Coating, BondingMAX HTE A/B 80-Ounce Kit HTE A/B 40-Ounce Kit Three:Proper Lay-Up Technique -Putting It All TogetherPre-lay-up notesLay out the fabric and pre-cut to size and set asideAvoid distorting the weave pattern as much as possibleFor fiberglass molding, ensure the mold is clean and adequate mold release is usedView our video presentation above "MAX EPOXY RESIN MIXING TECHNIQUE"Mix the resin only when all needed materials and implements needed are ready and within reachMix the proper amount of resin needed and be accurate proportioning the resin and curing agent. Adding more curing agent than the recommended mix ratio will not promote a faster cure. Over saturation or starving the fiberglass or any composite fabric will yield poor mechanical performance. When mechanical load or pressure is applied to the composite laminate, the physical strength of the fabric should bear the stress and not the resin. If the laminate is over saturated with the resin it will most likely to fracture or shatter instead of rebounding and resist damage.Don’t how much resin to use to go with the fiberglass?A good rule of thumb is to maintain a minimum of 30 to 35% resin content by weight, this is the optimum ratio used in high-performance prepreg (or pre-impregnated fabrics) typically used in aerospace and high-performance structural application.For general hand lay-ups, calculate using 60% fabric weight to 40% resin weight as a safety factor. This will ensure that the fabricated laminate will be below 40% resin content depending on the waste factor accrued during fabrication.Place the entire pre-cut fiberglass to be used on a digital scale to determine the fabric to resin weight ratio. Measuring by weight will ensure accurate composite fabrication and repeatability, rather than using OSY data.THE USE OF A WEIGHING SCALE IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED Purchase this scale with any of our product offering and the shipping cost of the scale is free. good rule of thumb is to maintain a minimum of 30 to 35% resin content by weight, this is the optimum ratio used in high-performance prepreg (or pre-impregnated fabrics) typically used in aerospace and high-performance structural application. For general hand lay-ups, calculate using 60% fabric weight to 40% resin weight as a safety factor. This will ensure that the fabricated laminate will be below 40% resin content depending on the waste factor accrued during fabrication.Place the entire pre-cut fiberglass to be used on a digital scale to determine the fabric to resin weight ratio. Measuring by weight will ensure accurate composite fabrication and repeatability, rather than using OSY data.Typical fabric weight regardless of weave pattern1 ounce per square yard is equal to 28.35 grams1 square yard equals to 1296 square inches (36 inches x 36 inches)FOR EXAMPLE1 yard of 8-ounces per square yard (OSY) fabric weighs 226 grams1 yard of 10-ounces per square yard (OSY) fabric weighs 283 gramsOunces per square yard or OSY is also known as aerial weight, which is the most common unit of measurement for composite fabrics. To determine how much resin is needed to adequately impregnate the fiberglass, use the following equation:(Total Weight of Fabric divided by 60%)X( 40%)= weight of mixed resin neededORfw= fabric weightrc= target resin contentrn=resin neededMASTER EQUATION(fw/60%)x(40%)=rnFOR EXAMPLE1 SQUARE YARD OF 8-OSY FIBERGLASS FABRIC WEIGHS 226 GRAMS(226 grams of dry fiberglass / 60%) X 40% = 150.66 grams of resin neededSo for every square yard of 8-ounce fabric, it will need 150.66 grams of mixed resin.Computing For Resin And Curing Agent Amount150.66 grams of resin neededMIX RATIO OF RESIN SYSTEM IS 2:1 OR50 PHR (per hundred resin)2 = 66.67% (2/3)+1 = 33.33%(1/3)=(2+1)=3 or (66.67%+33.33%)=100% or (2/3+1/3)= 3/3150.66 x 66.67%= 100.45 grams of Part A RESIN150.66 x 33.33%= 50.21 grams of Part B CURING AGENT100.45 + 50.21 = 150.66 A/B MIXTUREGENERAL LAY-UP PROCEDUREApply the mixed resin onto the surface and then lay the fabric and allow the resin to saturate through the fabric.NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUNDThis is one of the most common processing error that yields sub-standard laminates. By laying the fiberglass onto a layer of the prepared resin, fewer air bubbles are entrapped during the wetting-out stage. Air is pushed up and outwards instead of forcing the resin through the fabric which will entrap air bubbles. This technique will displace air pockets unhindered and uniformly disperse the impregnating resin throughout the fiberglass.HAND LAY-UP TECHNIQUE Eliminating air entrapment or void porosity in an epoxy/fiberglass lay-up processFiberglass Hand Lay Up For Canoe and Kayak Building- Cedar Strip Kayak Fiberglassing - YouTubeVideo will open in a new windowBasic Hand Lay-up FiberglassingVideo will open in a new windowVACUUM BAGGING PROCESS For performance critical application used in aerospace vehicles, composite framing for automotive vehicles and marine vessels, a process called 'Vacuum Bagging' is employed to ensure the complete consolidation of every layer of fabric. The entire tooling and lay-up are encased in an airtight envelope or bagging and a high-efficiency vacuum pump is used to draw out the air within the vacuum bag to create a negative atmospheric pressure. Once a full vacuum (29.9 Inches of Mercury) is achieved, the negative pressure applies a compacting force of 14.4 pounds per square inch (maximum vacuum pressure at sea level) is applied to the vacuum bag transferring the force to the entire surface area of the laminate. Vacuum pressure is maintained until the resin cures to a solid. For room temperature curing resin system, the vacuum pump is left in operation for a minimum of 18 hours. External heat can be applied to the entire lay-up, thus accelerating the cure of the resin system. The vacuum force also removes any entrapped air bubble between the layers of fabric and eliminate what is called, porosity or air voids. Porosity within a laminate creates weak spots in the structure that can be the source of mechanical failure when force or load is applied to the laminate. The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa (1.01325 bar), equivalent to 760 mm Mercury or 29.92 inches Mercury or14.696 pounds per square inch of pressure.FiberglaSs And Carbon Fiber Vacuum Bagging and Flat Panel Laminate - YouTubeVideo will open in a new window AUTOCLAVE CURING PROCESS Autoclave curing processing is the most common method used in large-scale production of composite products. The Aerospace Industry, which includes space exploration rockets and vehicles, deep space structures, and commercial and military airplane utilizes this composite fabrication process due to the critical nature of the application. The mechanical demands of the composite are often pushed to the upper limits and autoclaved process yields composites with the best weight to strength ratio.BASIC OPERATION OF THE AUTOCLAVE PROCESS In the autoclave process, high pressure and heat are applied to the part through the autoclave atmosphere, with a vacuum bag used to apply additional pressure and protect the laminate from the autoclave gases. The cure cycle for a specific application is usually determined empirically and, as a result, several cure cycles may be developed for a single material system, to account for differences in laminate thickness or to optimize particular properties in the cured part.The typical autoclave cure cycle is a two-step process. First, vacuum and pressure are applied while the temperature is ramped up to an intermediate level and held there for a short period of time. The heat reduces the resin viscosity, allowing it to flow and making it easier for trapped air and volatiles to escape. The resin also begins wetting the fibers at this stage.In the second ramp up, the temperature is raised to the final cure temperature and held for a sufficient length of time to complete the cure reaction. During this step, the viscosity continues to drop, but preset temperature ramp rates and hold times then stabilize viscosity at a level that permits adequate consolidation and fiber wetting, while avoiding excessive flow and subsequent resin starvation. These control factors also slow the reaction rate, which prevents excessive heat generation from the exothermic polymerization process. Upon completion, the cured mechanical performance of the composite is often much stronger and lighter compared to a hand lay-up, or vacuum bagged composite laminate. VACUUM INFUSION PROCESSVacuum Infusion Process is also known in the composites industry as Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding or VARTM.Similar to the Vacuum Bagging Process where the negative pressure is used to apply consolidation force to the laminate while the resin cures, the resin is infused into the fabric lay-up by sucking the impregnating resin and thus forming the composite laminate.The VARTM Process produces parts that require less secondary steps, such as trimming, polishing or grinding with excellent mechanical properties. However, the vacuum infusion requires more additional or supplemental related equipment and expendable materials. So the pros and cons of each presented composite fabrication process should be carefully determined to suit the user's capabilities and needs.Please view the following video demonstration which explains the process of Vacuum Infusion or VARTM process.MAX 1618 A/B VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING PROCESSCARBON FIBER VACUUM INFUSION WITH EPOXY RESIN - VACUUM BAGGING WITH MAX 1618 EPOXY RESIN - YouTubeVideo will open in a new windowStep Four: Proper CuringAlthough we have formulated all of ur MAX EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM product line to be resistant to amine-blush,it is recommended not to mix any resin systems in high humidity conditions, greater than 60%.Always make sure that the substrate or material the epoxy resin system is being applied to is well prepared as possible to ensure the best-cured performance. Always review the published data and information for proper usage, application, and general safety information. Our expert staff of engineers is always available for consultation and assistance. Allow the lay-up to cure for a minimum of 24 to 36 hours before handling.Optimum cured properties can take up to 7 days depending on the ambient cure condition. The ideal temperature cure condition of most room temperature epoxy resin is 22 to 27 degrees Celsius at 20% relative humidity.Higher ambient curing temperatures will promote faster polymerization and development of cured mechanical properties.Improving mechanical performance via post heat cure A short heat post cure will further improve the mechanical performance of most epoxy resins. Allow the applied resin system to cure at room temperature until for 18 to 24 hours and if possible, expose heat cure it in an oven or other sources of radiant heat (220°F to 250°F) for45 minute to an hour. You can also expose it to direct sunlight but place a dark colored cover, such as a tarp or cardboard to protect it from ultraviolet exposure.In general room temperature cured epoxy resin has a maximum operating temperature of 160°F or lower.A short heat post cure will ensure that the mixed epoxy system is fully cured,especially for room temperature cure system that can take up to 7 days to achieve 100% cureSome darkening or yellowing of the epoxy resin may occur if overexposed to high temperature (>250 F). AMINE BLUSHThe affinity of an amine compound (curing agent) to moisture and carbon dioxide creates a carbonate compound and forms what is called amine blush. Amine blush is a wax-like layer that forms as most epoxies cure. If the epoxy system is cured in extreme humidity (>70%).It will be seen as a white and waxy layer that must be removed by physical sanding of the surface followed by an acetone wipe. OTHER TYPES OF EPOXY RESIN CURE MECHANISMLATENT CURING SYSTEMSLatent epoxy resins are systems that are mixed together at room temperature and will begin polymerization but it will not achieve full cure unless it is exposed to a heat cure cycle. In general, these are high-performance systems that demonstrate exceptional performance under extreme conditions such as high mechanical performance under heat and cryogenic temperatures, chemical resistance or any environment that epoxy room temperature system perform marginally or poorly. Upon the mixing of the resin and curing agent polymerization will begin and will only achieve a partial cure. Some resins may appear cured or dry to the touch, this state is called 'B-Stage Cure', but upon application of force will either be gummy or brittle almost glass-like and will dissolve in most solvents. The semi-cured resin must be exposed to an elevated temperature for it to continue polymerization and achieve full cure. HEAT ACTIVATED CURING SYSTEMSThis type of epoxy system will not polymerize unless it is exposed to the activation temperature of the curing agent which can be as low as 200F and as high as 400F. In most instances, our MAX EPOXY SYSTEMS epoxy system can be stored at room temperature and remain liquid for up to six months and longer. TESTING THE COMPOSITE DETERMINATION OF THE FABRIC-RESIN RATIO TESTING FABRIC TO RESIN RATIO VIA RESIN BURN OUT - YouTubeVideo will open in a new windowULTIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH ULTIMATE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF FIBERGLASS LAMINATE TOOLING BOARD. - YouTubeVideo will open in a new window6500 pounds to failure / 0.498 square inch = 13,052 psi max compressive strengthSPECIMEN EXAMINATION AFTER COMPRESSION TEST - YouTubeVideo will open in a new windowOther mechanical and physical test should be used to determine other aspect of performance. Here is a link to a technical journal that discusses the importance of validation and testing of composite materials.Please cut and paste the following link to review the journal.**********************************************DON'T FORGET OUR EPOXY MIXING KITClick The Link to add to order YOU NEED TO MEASURE, MIX, DISPENSE OR APPLY ANY OF OUR MAX EPOXY RESIN IN ONE CONVENIENT KITProportioning the correct amount is equally as important to attain the intended cured properties of the resin system.The container in which the epoxy and curing agent is mixed is an important consideration when mixing an epoxy resin system. The container must withstand the tenacity of the chemical and must be free of contamination.Most epoxy curing agent has a degree of corrosivity, as a general practice, protective gloves should be worn when handling chemicals of the same nature. MIXING KIT CONTENTS 4 each 32 ounce (1 Quart) clear HDPE plastic tubs4 each 16 ounce (1 pint) clear HDPE plastic tubs4 each clear HDPE Plastic Lids for the plastic tubs4 each 8 ounce (1/2-Pint) Wax Free Paper Cups5 pairs one size fits all Powder-Free Latex Gloves (Large)6 Piece HDPE Plastic Measuring Spoon Kit(1 tablespoon to 1/8 teaspoon)10 Piece HDPE Plastic Measuring Cup(1 Cup to 1/8 Teaspoon)2 each None Sterile Graduated 10 cc Syringes1 pack of Wooden Stir Sticks (Disposable Chopsticks)1 pack Assorted Size Bristle Brush (5 per pack) PLEASE CHECK OUT OTHER AVAILABLERESIN SYSTEMS AT OUR eBay STOREFor our complete listing, please Visit our eBay store! IMPORTANT NOTICE Your purchase constitutes the acceptance of this disclaimer. Please review before purchasing this product. The user should thoroughly test any proposed use of this product and independently conclude satisfactory performance in the application. Likewise, if the manner in which this product is used requires government approval or clearance, the user must obtain said approval. The information contained herein is based on data believed to be accurate at the time of publication. Data and parameters cited have been obtained through published information, PolymerProducts laboratories using materials under controlled conditions. Data of this type should not be used for a specification for fabrication and design. It is the user's responsibility to determine this Composites fitness for use. There is no warranty of merchantability of fitness for use, nor any other express implied warranty. The user's exclusive remedy and the manufacturer's liability are limited to refund of the purchase price or replacement of the product within the agreed warranty period. PolymerProducts and its direct representative will not be liable for incidental or consequential damages of any kind. Determination of the suitability of any kind of information or product for the use contemplated by the user, the manner of that use and whether there is any infringement of patents is the sole liability of the user. Condition: New other (see details), Condition: All of our MAX Epoxy Resin formulations are engineered and manufactured in our Ontario, CA facility. It is also packaged and bottled under Federal Guidelines for packaging chemical goods and products. Each batch is tested and validated using established (ASTM) American Society for Testing and Materials and controlled testing methods., Product+Type: EPOXY RESIN FOR VACUUM INFUSION, Industry+Type: COMPOSITES FABRICATION, RESIN FUSION: VARTAM VACUUM ASSISTED RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING, ULTRA LOW VISCOSITY: CURES VERY CLEAR, LONG WORKING TIME: ROOM TEMPERATURE OR HEAT CURED RESIN SYSTEM, Model: MAX 1618 A/B 1.5 GALLON KIT, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Custom Bundle: No, Color: CRYSTAL CLEAR, Bundle Listing: Yes, MPN: MAX1618192OZ, Brand: MAX 1618 A/B, Non-Domestic Product: No, Country of Manufacture: United States Insights Exklusiv
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